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      FOR THIS ITEM TYPE YOU NEED TO WRITE A SUMMARY OF THE TEXT IN ONE SENTENCE.

      You have 10 minutes to write your summary. Make sure to include the main points of the reading passage in a full, single sentence of no more than 75 words.

      The Word Count at the bottom of the screen counts the number of words you write. There are also cut, copy and paste buttons which you may use while constructing your summary.

      Cut: Select text from your answer that you wish to remove and left-click “Cut”.

      Copy: Select text from your answer that you wish to copy and left-click “Copy”.

      Paste: Place the cursor where you wish to paste the cut/copied text and left-click “Paste”.


      1. Read the passage below and summarize it using one sentence. Type your response in the box at the bottom of the screen. You have 10 minutes to finish this task. Your response will be judged on the quality of your writing and on how well your response presents the key points in the passage.

      Biofuels like ethanol are a renewable energy source essential to fighting climate change.
       Transport accounts for about a quarter of greenhouse-gas emissions, and road transport makes up more than 70% of that amount. Sustainable biofuels like ethanol are among the best solutions available today to help reduce emissions.

      Ethanol is a clean, high-performance renewable fuel that works in most of today’s cars and certain trucks. Its use boosts engine efficiency, helps reduce harmful emissions and pollutants and fights climate change. Ethanol will also drive the more efficient internal-combustion and hybrid engines that will make up a large percentage of the world’s vehicle fleet in the decades to come. It does not require investing in new infrastructure in order to deliver results.

      International organisations assert that biofuels will be essential to achieving global climate goals.The use of liquid biofuels could triple by 2030 compared to 2010 levels.


      2. Read the passage below and summarize it using one sentence. Type your response in the box at the bottom of the screen. You have 10 minutes to finish this task. Your response will be judged on the quality of your writing and on how well your response presents the key points in the passage.

      UNESCO awards its Literacy Prizes on 7 September on the eve of International Literacy Day, celebrated every year on 8 September. The theme chosen for 2018 focused on literacy and skills development.

      An International Conference on Literacy and Skills Development brings together stakeholders and decision-makers from all over the world to examine how integrated approaches to literacy and skills development can help close the literacy gap and improve learners’ ability to meet the needs of today’s increasingly globalized and digitized employment market.

      Globally, at least 750 million people still lack basic literacy skills. Two-thirds of the people concerned are women and 102 million of them are youth aged 15 to 24. At the same time, many of the 192 million unemployed worldwide are unable to find a decent livelihood due to the lack of foundational skills, including literacy, and failing to meet the skill demands of the rapidly changing labour market.

      These challenges are at the heart of the International Literacy Day, which strives to identify effective, combined approaches to literacy learning and skills development so as to prepare and support life-long learning, improve lives and livelihoods.


      3. Read the passage below and summarize it using one sentence. Type your response in the box at the bottom of the screen. You have 10 minutes to finish this task. Your response will be judged on the quality of your writing and on how well your response presents the key points in the passage.

      The art of camouflage is one of the latest and most advanced techniques of modern warfare, but animals have been masters of it for ages. The lives of most of them are passed in constant conflict. Those who have enemies from whom they can not escape through rapid movement must be able to hide or disguise. Those who hunt for a living must be able to approach their prey without unnecessary noise or attention to themselves. It is very remarkable how nature helps the wild creatures to disguise themselves by colouring them with various shades best calculated to enable them to escape enemies or to entrap prey.

      The animals of each place are usually coloured according to their habitat, but good reasons make a few exceptions advisable. Many of the most striking examples of this protective resemblance among animals are the result of their very intimate association with the surrounding flora and natural scenery. There is no part of a tree, including flowers, fruits, bark and roots, that is not in some way copied and imitated by these clever creatures. Often this imitation is astonishing in its faithfulness of detail. 


      4. Read the passage below and summarize it using one sentence. Type your response in the box at the bottom of the screen. You have 10 minutes to finish this task. Your response will be judged on the quality of your writing and on how well your response presents the key points in the passage.

      People from various corners of the world find Australia a very attractive country to settle in. The most admired Australian features that amount to such excitement among migrants worldwide are the stable and open economy, attractive career choices and remuneration, great infrastructure, multicultural society and splendid landscapes. Australia offers an impressive lifestyle which many international residents aspire to achieve.

      Australia PR Visa allows people around the world to enter and settle permanently in Australia. The most common permanent visas include some skilled work and family visas. When you apply for a permanent visa, you must meet certain visa requirements. Each visa has different eligibility requirements. As an Australian permanent resident, your right to re-enter Australia after travelling abroad depends on whether the travel facility on your permanent visa is valid. You do not have an automatic right of entry into Australia.

      Most permanent residents can apply for Australian citizenship after living in Australia for four years, provided at least 12 months of this was as a permanent resident.


      5. Read the passage below and summarize it using one sentence. Type your response in the box at the bottom of the screen. You have 10 minutes to finish this task. Your response will be judged on the quality of your writing and on how well your response presents the key points in the passage.

      The cove hardwood forest is surrounded by a degree of romance or mystique. The coves share all of their predominant trees with the neighbouring plant communities, and no common animal or plant is restricted to cove forest. The key to its recognition is variety, particularly in the make-up of the canopy, the name given to the roof level of any woodland. Cove forest is not restricted literally to topographic flats and hollows; it may also occur on steep slopes, where soil moisture conditions are suitable.

      Many of today’s typical cove hardwood trees have also been found as fossils in rocks of Cretaceous age in the eastern United States. This matchup—and the recognition that the southern mountains have been continuously available for land plant growth since Dinosaur Days—has given plant geographers much food for thought. Cove forest is now plausibly regarded as a very ancient mixture of species. Probably, it was the ancestor of several other widespread forest communities. We are fortunate that this type of forest survives uncut in the Great Smoky Mountains.


      6. Read the passage below and summarize it using one sentence. Type your response in the box at the bottom of the screen. You have 10 minutes to finish this task. Your response will be judged on the quality of your writing and on how well your response presents the key points in the passage.

      Hurricanes are one of nature’s most powerful storms. Their potential for loss of life and destruction of property is tremendous.
      Hurricanes are a type of tropical cyclone. Tropical cyclones are warm-core, low-pressure systems without any “front” attached, that develop over the tropical or subtropical waters, and have an organized circulation. 

      Tropical cyclones are the products of a warm tropical ocean and a warm, moist atmosphere. Hurricanes are typically steered by easterly winds, generally south of 25° north latitude and by high-level westerly winds north of 25° north latitude.

      Although hurricanes are well known for their strong and destructive winds, a hurricane’s storm surge is by far the greatest threat to life and property along the immediate coast. Storm surge is simply water that is pushed toward the shore by the force of the winds swirling around the storm.  Because much of the United States’ densely populated Atlantic and Gulf Coast coastlines lie less than 10 feet above mean sea level, the danger from storm surges is tremendous.

       7. Read the passage below and summarize it using one sentence. Type your response in the box at the bottom of the screen. You have 10 minutes to finish this task. Your response will be judged on the quality of your writing and on how well your response presents the key points in the passage.

      COVID-19 is a deadly disease caused by a newly discovered coronavirus. Most people diagnosed with the COVID-19 virus can develop mild to moderate respiratory illness and recover without needing special care.Older people and those with underlying medical problems like cardiovascular disease, diabetes, chronic respiratory disease, and cancer may be at higher risk for more serious complications from COVID-19.

      Being well informed about the COVID-19 virus, the disease it causes, and how it spreads is the best way to prevent and slow down its transmission. Protect yourself and others from infection by washing your hands or using a hand sanitizer that contains at least 60% alcohol, and by not touching your face. The COVID-19 virus spreads mainly through droplets of saliva or discharge from the nose when an infected person coughs or sneezes, so it is crucial that you cover your mouth and nose with a tissue when you cough or sneeze or use the inside of your elbow.

      There is currently no vaccine available to prevent coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). There are, however, several current clinical trials developing new treatments.

       

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